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Antennas, Amplifiers and Propagation


(for Microwave WLANs)

LAST UPDATED:   Saturday 12th December 2010

KA3SDP (USA) installs Alford Slot antenna




  NOTES on 802.11 rain attenuation

propagation thru rain.htm

from John Waters


PolarPlot is a program that lets you see what the polar diagram
of your rotatable beam antenna actually looks like where it is operating.
It has been written for the ham radio community interested

in knowing more about their beam antennas. 

You can download and try out PolarPlot to see if you like the look of it.
The program will operate fully for 30 runs during a 15 day period.
You can check that it works on your equipment and take take
a look at some sample antenna plots.  All that is needed (apart
from your rig of course!) to measure your own or someone else's
antenna is a standard PC with a sound card.  For more information
look at this copy of the user guide  PolarPlot runs on
Windows 95/98, Windows/NT4 and Windows 2000,
desktop machines and even laptops!

With PolarPlot you can measure the polar diagram of the antenna
and check for abnormalities - compare plots taken before and after
changes to the design or location - check the -3dB beamwidth -
look at the front to back ratio - see the size and position of the
sidelobes - compare the design pattern to the actual - gain a
better understanding of the antenna. You can view the plot on
a circular or rectangular grid, with either log or linear scales.
The screenshot on the right is a 2m beam before and after a
re-build - the blue is the before, and the red is the after!.
Take a look at some more screenshots of PolarPlot in action. 2m 8el after rebuild.jpg (74658 bytes)

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  G4JNT Microwave Broadband (ATV)
path prediction program for PCs

A set of Public Domain programs for plotting microwave (broadband amateur
television) line of sight radio pathways,using NGR/Locator Grid. Draws Localmaps
around a given point. Point-to-point Terrain paths and optical horizon Views.

Mainland Britain only. MicroSoft DOS or Windows.


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  VE2DBE "RADIO MOBILE" path prediction program for PCs

Radio Mobile Version 3.5.4 Radio Propagation and Virtual Mapping Freeware by

An up-to-date Windows program useable world-wide requiring additional mapping and topographical data obtainable from other external sources.....

Elevation data For most of the world is available

The software also provides 3D views, stereoscopic views, and animation.

Freeware by VE2DBE


Getting started in

"Radio Mobile"

G8GTZ (20/3/2002)

  Getting started in "Radio Mobile"

Radio Mobile is a fantastic program for predicting links and radio coverage. However,
it does take some time to get to know and the user documentation is not the best!
So here is the G8GTZ how to get started guide.

Download in original Word format

Noel - G8GTZ


ONLINE Terrain Plot

(United Kingdom Only)

  Online Terrain Plot U.K.

This page is an online implementation of a program used by UK radio amateurs since 1993.
Credit is due for the original Power Basic design, logic and implementation
due to Andy Talbot G4JNT



Multiple packet capture sources
Runtime network sorting by AP MAC address (bssid)
IP block detection via ARP and DHCP packet dissection
Cisco product detection via CDP
Ethereal and tcpdump compatable file logging
Airsnort-compatable "interesting" (cryptographically weak) logging
Secure SUID behavior
Cloaked network detection
Grouping and custom naming of SSIDs
Multiple clients viewing a single capture stream
Graphical mapping of data
Cross-platform support (handheld linux and BSD)

  Kismet 802.11b Wireless Network Sniffer (Linux Based)

What is it?

Kismet is a 802.11b wireless network sniffer. It is capable of sniffing using almost any

wireless card supported in Linux, including Prism2 based cards supported by the
Wlan-NG project (Linksys, Dlink, Rangelan, etc), cards which support standard packet
capture via libpcap (Cisco), and limited support for cards without RF Monitor support.

Author: Mike Kershaw (



  Net Stumbler is a website dedicated to wireless networking technology and security of
all kinds. We do our best to keep our website up to date with the latest wireless news
- we really appreciate user submitted stories. is also the official home
of the NetStumbler software.

NetStumbler is a Windows utility for 802.11b based wireless network auditing written by
Marius Milner.

March 2004


  SMART ID - WFS-1 WI-FI Detector

It is becoming increasingly difficult not to be caught up in WiFi traffic since so many homes
and businesses are taking advantage of this technology. Unfortunately, the ever-decreasing
prices and ever-improving ease-of-use has also caused wireless networks to be real
security problems within businesses and institutions. At a personal level, it would be
useful to have a way to know where these public "hotspots" are without having to
arry around equipment that makes you look like an extra from a Star Trek set.
At a corporate level, it would be extremely advantageous to have a means to
detect rogue WiFi equipment at all company sites without having to spend many
thousands of dollars on an enterprise-level WLAN detection system.

A solution may be at hand with the appearance of two "pocket-sized" 802.11 detectors
on the market: the Smart ID WFS-1 and the Kensington WiFi Finder. Both devices
claim to detect 802.11b and 802.11b/g traffic and report the strength of the signals.
They each cost in the area of $30 USD. The question is: how well do they work and
how can you use them for both personal information gathering and corporate protection?

Bob Rudis
September 2, 2003

March 2004


  Understanding Antenna Radiation Patterns

Understanding and Using Antenna Radiation Patterns
By Joseph H. Reisert

Each antenna supplier/user has different standards as well as plotting formats.  Each format
has its own pluses and minuses.  Hopefully this technical note will shed some light on
understanding and using antenna radiation patterns.

All antennas have directional qualities.  They do not radiate power equally in all directions. 
Therefore, antenna radiation patterns or plots are a very important tool to both the antenna
designer and the end user.  These plots show a quick picture of the overall antenna response.
However, radiation patterns can be confusing.

March 2004


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Image of 17.jpg   Aironet Wireless Communications

11 Mbps Wireless LAN Solution For Small Businesses About Wireless/
Evolution of Wireless Advantages Glossary Future of WLAN
What is Wireless Local Area Networking?  In the simplest of terms,
WLAN is local area networking without wires, providing all the features
and benefits of traditional LAN  technologies like... 


October 2, 2010


Central States VHF Society

Antenna Test Reports

  Central States VHF Society - USA

The Central States VHF Society has conducted Antenna Gain
Measurements since its inception in 1967.

The published results can be used to make comparisons

between commercial and homebrew antennas, between different
homebrew designs, and between different commercial designs.

Comparisons can be made between antennas measured in different
years on the 50 MHz through 432 MHz bands because the same
reference antennas have been in use for over 10 years!

Nov 2004




  Design of a Planar Omnidirectional Antenna

Randy Bancroft and Blaine Bateman

March 2004




  "HOT SPOT 16"

Highest Performance Community WLAN
Service Antenna for 2.4GHz

For best long range performance, horizontal polarization is a more
effective polarization method. At 16dBi this antenna claims to be
"the best omnidirectional horizontal polarisation service antenna
available anywhere in the world"

Using new patented technology the "HS16" example offers a nominal
all round 16dBi omnidirectional gain for general
"point to multi-point service".

Using a pair of dual antenna access points these antenna
each exhibit a sector gain of more than 20dBI (x 10 range)
over a 90 degree sector, so that 4 of these antenna back-to-back
at 90 degs (a Quad Block) more than cover a square service
footprint with sides 20n x 20n where "n" is the normal isotropic
antenna range...

It additionally features a directional peak 24 dBi ( x16 range) in
one 15 degree sector for long range interlinking, obviating the
need for an additional point-to-point dish up to 60cm dia.....see Field Plot

R.F. Termination = Silver plated "N Type" line socket
Length = 1.8 metres.
Weight = 7 Kg
Mounting = 48mm dia.x 6mm thick walled aluminium stub.
Casing White UPVC. Wind Loading Tested for 200 Km/h
Best VSWR = 1.04:1 (2445MHz)

This antenna is not yet commercially manufactured and distributed but can be supplied
as "designer samples" individually hand made and tested at: $799 each.

Further details: A-Antenna Limited....

  BLR-6GCC 2.4-2.5 GHz Ground Plane Antenna

BLR-6GCC is 4x5/8 vertical omnidirectional Ground Plane Antenna.
The antenna's body is made of silver plated copper wire placed in the
PVC radome. The feedpoint is a standard N female conector that is
protected from the weather within the lower aluminum tube.
A galvanized steel bracket provides easy side or top mounting
to a 20-60mm dia. mast.

Horizontal radiation pattern is circular with 8.2dBi gain.
Vertical radiation pattern is with downtilted lobes for good
short and far distance coverage.

* Real 8.2 dBi gain .
* Downtilt mainlobe and sidelobe .
* Easy mouting .
* Excelent price/performance ratio .

Price US $150

Naugarduko 41 LT 2600 Vilnius Lithuania

Tel : +370 2 263068 Fax: +370 2 263668

  The "Truth" About Horizontally Polarized Omni-Directional Antennas

There are about 5,000 different antenna designs in existence.
Of those 5,000 designs, horizontal omnis seem to be the one design
most shrouded in mystery in the amateur radio world. UHF applications
requiring horizontally polarized omni-directional antennas usually use
an Alford Slot, its cousin the Rib-Cage Slot, or a loop antenna.
Unfortunately, technical references containing slot antenna information
rarely contain practical design information required to build such
antennas reliably, and few experimenters have access to the
resources needed to fully analyze the radiation properties of their
antennas over wide bandwidths. A low VSWR is often mistaken as
meaning an antenna is functioning well. However, VSWR means
nothing when it comes to radiation patterns and antenna gain.

  Measured Performance Of The WB0QCD Alford-Slot Antenna

You've seen the ads. "5.6dBd gain...flat VSWR and good gain bandwidth
performance over the entire 420-440 MHz band"... But just how well does
the WB0QCD antenna perform in real life? We put ours to the test on a
professional antenna range and the results we found were less than

First, the good news. The WB0QCD Alford-Slot antenna is a mechanically
solid antenna that does exhibit a horizontally polarized, omni-directional
radiation pattern. The E-plane pattern is consistant with that of a single
axially slotted cylindrical antenna with a small diameter/wavelength ratio
(see G. Sinclair, "Patterns of Slotted-Cylinder Antennas"
Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 36, pp.1487-1492; December, 1948).
The antenna is about 3 dB more responsive in the direction of the slot
than it is off the rear of the antenna. This feature is consistant across the
entire 420 MHz to 450 MHz band.



Frequency range

2400-2500 MHz


14-17 dBi min


1:1.5 (Referred to 50 ohm)


30, 60o


22 dB


Linear Vertical
Dual Linear(+45,-45 deg)


SMA - standard. Other are optional

Fixed Tilt

0 - 10 o (optional)

Front to Back Ratio

20 dB

Power Handling

50 W per port


Pole mount/wall mount
(please specify at order)

  MARS Antennas & RF Systems Ltd. (Israel)


MARS's 2.4 GHz PCS Antenna is designed for outdoor and indoor installations.

The antenna is perfectly suited for all PCS wireless 2.4 GHz applications.
In particular the antenna is exceptionally proficient in harsh outdoor applications.
The combination of its aesthetic appeareance and high efficiency makes it ideal
for installations where the antenna is installed at low heights.

July 2002

Image of 30.jpg   Pacific Wireless

Pacific Wireless manufactures high quality and low cost  wireless communications solutions for the 1.7 to 2.7 GHz  Frequency Bands, including MMDS, ISM (2.4GHz), DECT and S-Bands.

We offer parabolic grid directional antenna products and GaAs MMIC RFIC downconverter and mixer products targeted at the following  applications: Wireless Internet, Point to Point and Point to Multipoint..

Image of 31.jpg   Parabolic AB

Welcome to Parabolic AB New! 2.4 GHz WLAN Antennas Parabolic has
been into the cable- and satellite business since 1982 manufacturing
satellite receivers, modulators, signal processors, antennas up to
8 meters and all kinds of accessories to...11/29/1999


SBISMSO5V - Vertically mounted suction cup 5dBi omni antenna for mobile and temporary non metallic mounting applications.

  Signull Technologies

We manufacture antennas and equipment for the 2.4ghz ism band used
by 802.11b WiFi devices at competitive prices. You can check us out online.

Mike Spenard


  Model 2426AA WLAN 5 dBi Omni

This WLAN antenna is broadband and designed to operate
from 2400 to 2483 MHz. The antenna features an omni
directional pattern with a gain of 5 dBi. It is enclosed in a
weatherproof radome for outdoor or indoor use.
The antenna provides for mounting to a mast, or an
optional ceiling mount is available. Standard coax
connectors, as well as connectors to meet Part 15 of
FCC regulations, can be supplied.


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Licence free U-N11 100Mbps links at 5.5GHz. 

Providing Wireless Lan Equipment Solutions for Businesses.  
ISPs, WIPOPs, 2.4GHz, 5.4GHz, Amplifiers, YDI: Wireless data
solutions, Wireless LAN equipment, WANs, LANs, MANs, Broadband
connectivity, wireless internet, Direct and Frequency Hopping Spread
Specturm Equipment, amplifiers, antennas, modems, radio, ISA,
PCMCIA, 2.4 GHz, 900 MHz, IEEE 802.11 




2.4 GHz 30 dBi Grid Antenna


In June 2007, L-com acquired HyperLink Technologies of Boca Raton, Florida.

Welded galvanized steel construction

 UV stable light gray powder coat finish

 5.3 beam-width & 18 inch coax lead

 Two piece reflector grid significantly reduces shipping costs

The HyperGain High Performance Parabolic Grid WiFi Antenna provides 30 dBi gain
with a 5.3 beam-width for highly directional long range applications.
Additional applications include point to point systems, point to multi-point
and wireless bridges in the 2.4GHz ISM band as well as IEEE 802.11b, 802.11g
and 802.11n wireless LAN systems. External interference of this antenna is minimized
due to the excellent front to back ratio. This antenna comes with a 18" coax lead
terminated with an N-Female connector.

Rugged and Weatherproof
This antenna's construction features a welded steel reflector grid for superior strength.

The grid surface is UV powder coated for durability and aesthetics, and the open-frame
design minimizes wind loading.

Two Piece Design
An HyperLink exclusive, this antenna's 2-piece reflector grid
is simple to assemble.

The 2-piece design significantly reduces shipping costs compared to similar antennas
with one piece reflector grids.

The HG2430G antenna is supplied with a heavy duty 30 degree tilt and swivel mast mount

kit. This allows installation at various degrees of incline for easy alignment.
It can be adjusted up or down from 0 to 30. It can be mounted to a 1.5"
(38mm) to 3" (76mm) dia. mast.


2.4 GHz 24 dBi Die-cast Grid Antenna


In June 2007, L-com acquired HyperLink Technologies of Boca Raton, Florida.

 Die-Cast aluminum construction

 UV stable light gray powder coat finish

 8 beam-width & 12 inch coax lead

 Easy to assemble

 All weather operation

The HyperGain HG2424G High-Performance Reflector Grid Wi-Fi Antenna provides
24 dBi gain with an 8 degree beam-width for long-range highly directional applications.
Applications include point to point systems, point to multi-point and wireless bridges
in the 2.4GHz ISM band as well as IEEE 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n wireless
LAN systems. It can be installed for either vertical or horizontal polarization.

Rugged and Weatherproof

This 24dB grid antenna's construction features a rust-proof die cast aluminum reflector

grid for superior strength and light weight. This antenna's 2-piece reflector grid is simple
to assemble and significantly reduces shipping costs. The grid surface is UV powder
coated for durability and aesthetics. The open-frame grid design minimizes wind loading.

The HG2424G antenna is supplied with a 60 degree tilt and swivel mast mount kit.

This allows installation at various degrees of incline for easy alignment. It can be
adjusted up or down from 0 to 60.

Dec 2010



2.4 GHz 15 dBi Omnidirectional Antenna


In June 2007, L-com acquired HyperLink Technologies of Boca Raton, Florida.

High Performance 15 dBi Omnidirectional Antenna

 Center fed collinear array

 Heavy-duty steel mounting brackets

 Commercial grade, 15 dBi antenna

 Solid Brass Elements

 Integral N-Female connector

The HyperGain™ HG2415U High-Performance Omnidirectional
Antenna features an impressive 15 dBi gain for long-range multipoint
applications in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. 

This antenna’s construction features a lightweight fiberglass radome for
durability and aesthetics. It’s mounting system features two heavy duty
extruded aluminum brackets and stainless steel U-Bolts for superior
strength in all-weather conditions.

Dec 2010



  FERIMEX - Slovakia

Antenna Sector H4x90

12dBi Gain at 360 degrees with Horizontal Polarisation
in four 90 degree sectors.

The H Range comprise 5 different Sector Antennas with horizontal polarization with

different beam angles. For use as access point antennas. More expensive than
vertical polarization antennas, use only when you need horizontal polarization.

The Antenna H4x90 has 4 connectors, one for each 90-degree sector, and requires

4 devices to be attached. In this way you can handle 4 times as many customers at
one access point. Antenna H2x90 and Antenna H2x180 have 2 connectors and
require 2 devices to be attached. Antenna H90 and Antenna H180 have one connector.

Oct 2007

  SuperPass Antennas Inc.

SuperPass Company Inc. was founded in 1996 by several world-leading
electrical and electronic scholars and engineers who have a strong desire
to develop innovative, high performance, and low cost antennas for the
booming wireless communication industry.

Image of 37.jpg   TIL-TEK Antennas Inc.

.......provides a complete line of base station and remote antennas  in
frequencies from 800 MHz to 5.8 GHz, with selected products  from
300 MHz to 28 Ghz. Applications include cellular, GSM,  PCS, DECT,
WLL/WLAN and rural point-to-multipoint systems as well as special
applications such as radar test targets and Digital Audio Broadcast antennas.


  WINNCOM TECHNOLOGIES 13.5 dBi Horizontal Omni

13.5 dBi Omnidirectional Antenna, Horizontally Polarized, 2.4 GHz
Product Code WRO2400-135H

Antenna Performance

Frequency 2.400 - 2.483 GHz
Gain (dBi) 13.5
VSWR >1.5:1
Polarization Horizontal
-3 dB Beamwidth 9
Impedence (ohms) 50
Maximum Power Rating 100 W

Physical Characteristics

Height 29.2 in. (737 mm)
Weight (Including Clamps) 2.5 lb. (1.46 kg)
Wind Load 125 mph (200 km/h)
RF Connector N type female
Mounting Stainless steel bracket set for Mast or Pole mounting 1.2 - 2.5 in (30 - 62 mm)


Image of 38.jpg   WinProp

Prediction of wave propagation in indoor, urban and terrain scenarios.
Wireless mobile communication networks incl. Radio network planning
for macrocells, microcells, WLAN, indoor, Picocells.



What is Wi-Spy™?

Wi-Spy™ is the world's smallest 2.4 GHz spectrum analyzer*. Wi-Spy is
perfect for troubleshooting interference from the following devices:

  • Wi-Fi (802.11 b/g/n)
  • Microwave Ovens
  • Cordless Phones
  • Baby Monitors
  • Bluetooth

Wi-Spy is a fraction of the cost of traditional spectrum analyzers!
*Wi-Spy's frequency range is 2.400 - 2.483 GHz




CREVICE Z-17 Super High Gain
16.5 dBi Omnidirectional High Gain Antenna

Outdoor design
gold elements.

Electrical Specifications:
Gain (at work with other antenna working in horizontal polarization) 16,5 dBi
Frequency 2400 - 2500 Mhz
VSWR 1,3
Polarization horizontal
Vertical beamwidthE vector 8
Horizontal beamwidth horizontal H vector 360 (dokladnie 2x160 -3dB)
Termination / connector N-type / female
Impedance 50 Ohm
Weight 2 kg
Dimension length 860 mm, section 100x50 mm  
Clamp (Mounting bracket) 30-60mm



Dec 2007


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500mW Booster

  Pen WLAN Booster

WLAN & Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g Booster( Indoor/Outdoor)

500mW PEN BOOSTER 2.4G + Panel 12dBi Pro Base 3M

500mW Indoor PENBOOSTER with RPTNC to RPSMA adapter + 2.4G
Panel 12dBi antenna with LLC200/ 3M RSMA cable + Pro Base

Dec 2010

Image of 18.jpg   BreezeCOM

The AMP-500, 500 mW amplifier (after-burner) is used to increase the range of outdoor links.
Its built-in 3.5dB Noise Figure Receiving Amplifier can also be used to compensate for
cable losses to an antenna at the top of a building or mast.



  Linksys Wireless Booster

The Linksys Wireless Signal Booster piggybacks onto your Linksys Wireless Access
Point (or Wireless Access Point Router) to increase the effective range and coverage
area of the 802.11b network.


  • Increase the effective range of your Linksys 802.11b Access Point or
    Wireless Access Point Router
  • Stronger signal improves throughput by reducing retransmissions
  • Save on wiring costs -- increase your Access Point's coverage into hard-to-reach areas
  • Simple installation -- stack, connect, and go




The ILB30-24 is an industrial quality outdoor RF Power Amplifier. From the Middle East to
Anchorage, Alaska, its rugged, weatherproof design allows the ILB30 to survive in extreme
outdoor environments.

Each unit is tested 3 times before being shipped. An assembly line ON/OFF Test is followed
by an RF Power Output Test, and then finally with an RF Power Consistency Test.
There is no better performing, or higher quality Outdoor RF Power Amplifier than the ILB30-24.

The amplifier comes complete with the DC power injector module (INJ24) as well as the
12V AC Power Adapter.


  • Dual Band b & g Compatible
  • Rugged Outdoor Housing
  • Low Heat Generation
  • Clean Signal Gain
  • Low Noise Floor
  • Plug-n-Play Ready
  • Complete with Power Supply


SKU RNS-ILB30 Weight 3.05 lbs



We are pleased to offer four power amplifiers for the 2304 - 2450MHz.
amateur radio bands. 

Three 5 watt models are offered with various gain configurations as well
as a 10 watt 10dB gain model. Commerical wide band versions as well
as custom frequencies are available. Call us with your requirements. 


Small mechanical dimensions. Commercial construction in a milled aluminum case
Built in detector for monitoring power output. SMA - Female connectors
10 or 27dB Gain (Depending on model). 13.8VDC operation
Small size 80 x 60 x 20mm ..... 130 x 60 x 20 mm

Built-in protection for the Power GaAs FET

  Model WL-2400A .5 Watt IEEE 802.11 Mast-mounted 2.4GHz.
Wireless LAN/WAN Amplifier

Ultra Low Noise Preamplifier, automatic RF carrier detection, plus a CDMA
rated linear amplifier operating at less than .3dB compression all add up to
solid links over extended distances.
The WL-2400 A is the highest performance LAN amplifier available today!

.5 watt RF output 10dB Transmit Gain
Preamplifier NF <1.5dB Preamplifier Gain 14.0dB typical
Seamless interface to all LAN cards Suitable for land, mobile, aircraft and shipboard use
IEEE 802.11 compatible Rugged mast-mounted 100% weatherproof construction
Heavy Duty "N" type connectors 120V / 220V AC or 13.8VDC operation

  Hyper Amp II Model 2401

1 Watt IEEE 802.11 compatible 2.4 GHz Wireless LAN Amplifiers
II is the latest evolution in HyperLink’s family of pole-top amplifiers for
spread spectrum wireless LANs. This unit’s high power, high gain
and ultra-low 2.5 dB noise figure make it the highest performance
wireless LAN amplifier available today.

The Hyperlink; significantly improves operating range and link reliability
by placing maximum transmit power and up to 20dB of receive gain
directly at the antenna where is most effective. The unit can be
configured to deliver over 1 Watt of transmit power with as little as
1mW of input power. This feature permits cable runs of several
hundred feet with no degradation


40 Watt 2.4GHz Amplifier


Dec 2004


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